Camera Exposure Issues

Shaking and jittering of acquisition vehicles on unstructured roads could cause the camera to face sunlight directly, which leads to halos in images. Hard synchronization limits the exposure time of cameras, which results in a few poor-quality images because of underexposure in several areas with significant changes in light. These phenomena may lead to unpredictable problems in vision-based localization and perception.

High-frequency Jitter

Due to uneven road surfaces in mining areas, vehicles may suffer constant jittering, which magnifies biases from deviation in hard synchronization between the sensors, and the constant jittering also leads to tiny changes in the external transformation because of the deformation of equipment. All the external calibration steps are completed before the collection process. We do not perform external calibration at every frame, and therefore we could not address the above issues. These will have a negative impact on localization and perception algorithms.